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J-11A

The J-11 fighter is a heavy-duty fighter produced in China and is the fourth-generation fighter. The J-11 is Russia Su-27SK model authorized to be re-produced in China. The production line is established by Shenyang Aircraft Company. Russia supplies main parts and systems to establish production and assembly capabilities. Later, Shen Fei developed derivative models J-11B and J-11BS based on the aerodynamic shape of Su-27 plus domestic avionics and weapon systems, which has improved performance.

J-11 Fighter
J-11 Fighter Jet

History of J-11

In the 1990s, the Chinese Air Force’s equipment appeared to be inferior to the advanced countries in the world. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the State Council, and the Central Military Commission have decided to import a production license for Su-27 (referred to as the “Eleventh” project) from Russia to establish aircraft production lines. The then-US President George W. Bush sold 150 F-16 Block 20 fighter jets to the Taiwan authorities in 1992. Shortly thereafter, the Taiwan Strait Missile Crisis erupted, further accelerating this decision.

On September 17, 1990, a Chinese military delegation including senior generals visited Kubinka Air Force Base outside Moscow, which is an important test flight base for Russian military aviation. At that time, the MiG-29, which was blown away by the media of various countries, did a flight show. When it was not halfway, a MiG-29 suddenly crashed when doing low-altitude stunts, and the plane was destroyed.

SU-27
Russia SU-27 (Original model of Chinese J-11 Fighter Jet)

 

It was rumored at the time that the Soviet Union rejected China’s request to purchase the Su-27 and strongly recommended the MiG-29. But China clearly knows that the MiG-29 is nothing more than a small and medium-sized front-line fighter compared to the Su-27. The Su-27 uses an analog telex control system. Although it is not comparable to Western digital telex control, it has a substantial leap compared to the MiG-29’s hydraulic control.

MIG-29
downgraded MiG-29 was rejected by China (different engine | lower performance | firing power)

 

The AL-31F turbofan engine used in the Su-27 also has greater thrust than the RD-33 used in the MiG-29, which is far superior to the latter in terms of thrust-to-weight ratio and service life. Therefore, China will definitely not have a poor performance MiG-29, but instead choose a certain number of excellent Su-27s with domestic medium-performance fighters under development to form the main force of 21st century Chinese Air Force fighters.

In 1991, China spent about 1 billion U.S. dollars to order the first batch of 24 Su-27s from Russia, of which 18 were single-seaters and 6 two-seaters. A second batch of 22 was subsequently ordered in 1995, of which 16 were single-seater and 6 double-seater.

On December 6, 1996, the Chinese and Russian governments reached an agreement after long negotiations. Russia provided technology and aircraft parts to assist Shenyang Aircraft Company in the production of a contract for a maximum of 200 Su-27SK fighter jets in China, with a total value of 25. The agreement also restricts China from exporting. According to the agreement, a full set of components will be provided by the Amur Komsomolsk factory first, assembled in China, and then gradually localized. The model renamed after the introduction of China is called the J-11 aircraft, which is a twin-engine, heavy-duty, long-range, and all-weather air combat fighter.

On September 1, 1998, the first batch of Su-27SK was successfully tested by Russian personnel.

 

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Localization

From the end of 1998 to September 2002, Shen Fei Company obtained the dominance of domestically produced Su-27. There are about 80 SK finished machines ordered from Russia, and the total value of the agreement is about 6 billion U.S. dollars. The Sino-Russian agreement on the Su-27 is divided into two parts. The total quantity of 27SK finished products and parts is 200. First imported 24 Su-27SK finished products, and then assembled and imported parts from China.

According to the agreement, the Russian side provided 120 sets of parts in three years, assembled by Shen Fei Company, and domestically produced the Su-27 according to an annual progress of 20%. The Russian side provided technical support and personnel training, and cooperated with China to rebuild Shenyang Aircraft Industry Company. Shenfei Company has set up production lines for assembly, test flight, pre-assembly, assembly and parts manufacturing.

In nearly 4 years, it has established a set of third-generation heavy-duty fighter development and production lines, and successfully passed the general acceptance of the National Acceptance Committee. The localization of the Su-27 and the nationally produced fighter -11 fighter aircraft is divided into multiple steps. Initially, it was imported and assembled. After that, the localization rate was continuously increased. Finally, the radar and engine were copied, and the localization of manufacturing was fully accomplished in China.

 

J-11A

Initially, it was assembled in pieces. According to media reports in 2002, the assembly has been successful. Since then, he has sought to increase the level of localization, gradually add his own products and improvements, such as domestic electronic equipment that is more excellent than the corresponding products in Russia, and finally completely improved the technical level of domestic J-11.

More than 75% of the Su-27 series of Chinese fighter jets ordered from Russia are produced by the Gagarin Komsomolsk Aircraft Production Joint Manufacturing Plant. The order of China Su-27 not only saved the plant, but also boosted the production chain supporting the company, and also helped China complete part of the assembly work of Su-27.

Since September 1999, Su-27 began to be deployed.

 

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Deviation Models

On December 16, 1998, the Su-27, which was assembled by Shenyang Aircraft Company, was successfully tested by Fu Guoxiang, the chief test pilot of the Air Force First Test Flight Brigade. The leader of the military commission personally observed the first flight.

In December 1999, China signed a contract with Russia for the third time to purchase 28 Su-27 two-seater aircraft. This decision shortened the gap between China’s aviation equipment and advanced developed countries, and accelerated the pace of China’s national defense modernization.

In 2006, as China was unveiled a model of the Su-27SK (J-11A) fighter jet, the J-11B (J-11B), Russia reduced the number of plans to 95. In addition, there is a very important supplementary agreement. When China’s localization progress cannot keep up, Russia will provide finished products to supplement it. The situation in the Taiwan Strait also requires the immediate deployment of more advanced fighter aircraft.

J-11B

 

The first domestic troops to equip the Su-27 include the “Blue Army” troops responsible for simulating the main imaginary enemy. Previously, due to the lack of advanced fighters, the simulation of the “Blue Army” stayed at a relatively low level, which affected the practice effect. Some of the Su-27 that Russia sent to China were “Second Hand” that came directly from the active air defense forces.

Although the Su-27 equipped before the disintegration of the Soviet Union was equivalent to “Second Hand” in the hands of China, its performance was better than the brand new one.

As of April 2013, China has successfully developed J-11A, J-11B, J-11BS, and J-11D fighters based on Russian-made fighters.

 

J-11B

 

Specification

Name J-11 Fighter Jet (4th generation)
Released 1998
R & D Shenyang Aircraft Company (Shen Fei)
Aerodynamic swept-back wings
Number of Engines 2
Flying speed subsonic
Crew 1
Length 21.9 meters
Span 14.7 meters
Height 5.93 meters
Engine 2 Saturn / Lyulka AL-31F or WS-10A (Taihang engine) turbofan engine
Empty Weight
16,380 kg
Takeoff Weight 33,000 kg
Maximum flight speed Mach 2.35 (approx 2,500 km / h), Cruising speed Mach 0.95
Climbing Rate
330m/s
Practical Ceiling
18000 meters
Maximum range 3,530 km, Combat radius 1,500 km
Weaponry (1) 150 rounds of a 30mm GSh-30-1 machine gun;
(2) 10 mounting points of 8,000 kg (17,600 lb);
(3) 6 medium-range air-to-air missiles, KAB-150 and UAB-500 smart bombs, laser / television / infrared guidance.

 

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